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An estimated 34.2 million Americans of all ages have diabetes, both diagnosed and undiagnosed. Reputable source. Diabetes can cause a buildup of sugars in the blood if it is not continuously and carefully managed, which raises the risk of serious complications like heart disease and stroke.
Diabetes is a disorder that makes it difficult for the body to process blood sugar, often known as blood glucose. Diabetes comes in a variety of forms, each with a unique course of therapy. The way your body converts food into energy is affected by diabetes, a chronic (long-lasting) health disease.
There are numerous types of diabetes, and each has a unique management strategy. Not all types of diabetes are brought on by obesity or a sedentary lifestyle. Some have existed from childhood. Diabetes comes in three main subtypes: type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes, which we go into more depth about below. Monogenic and cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is less common variants of the disease.
TYPES OF DIABETES
Type 1 Diabetes
Due to the body’s inability to produce the hormone insulin, type 1 diabetes is a dangerous illness that causes excessively high blood glucose levels (also known as sugar levels). Due to an attack by your body on the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas, you are unable to create any insulin at all.
The hormone insulin is in charge of metabolizing blood sugar for usage by the body as needed. The regular administration of insulin is required for those with type 1 diabetes. With injections or an insulin pump, people can accomplish this. People with type 1 diabetes can prevent significant problems by successfully controlling their blood sugar levels. Several frequent issues include:
- Renal problems
- Illness of the heart
- More likely to contract a skin illness
- Eyesight problems
- Elevated blood pressure
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Type 2 Diabetes
A disorder in the body’s ability to control and utilize sugar (glucose) as fuel is type 2 diabetes. This chronic (long-term) disorder causes the bloodstream to circulate with an excessive amount of sugar. Over time, cardiovascular, neurological, and immune system issues might result from excessive blood sugar levels.
Although type 1 and type 2 diabetes can start in childhood and adulthood, respectively, type 2 diabetes used to be classified as adult-onset diabetes. Although type 2 is more prevalent in elderly adults, type 2 instances have increased in younger people as a result of the rise in childhood obesity. Type 2 diabetes can strike anyone, whether they are adults or children. These are some of the most typical risk factors for type 2 diabetes:
45 years or older Overweight Family background
Type 2 diabetes symptoms and signs frequently appear gradually. You may have type 2 diabetes for years without realizing it. When present, signs and symptoms may include:
- Inadvertent weight loss
- Slowly heaving wounds
- Heightened thirst
- Increased appetite
- Recurring urination
- Repeated infections
- Distorted vision
Diabetes that is initially discovered during pregnancy is known as gestational diabetes (gestation). Pregnancy-related diabetes alters how your cells use sugar, just like other types of diabetes (glucose). High blood sugar levels caused by gestational diabetes can have an impact on both the health of you and your unborn child.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that gestational diabetes affects between 1 and 10% of pregnancies annually. The problem is more likely to develop in people who are overweight before getting pregnant. The CDC also notes that approximately 50% of those who have gestational diabetes will go on to acquire type 2 diabetes.
Individuals can take action to control the illness while pregnant. These consist of:
- Making dietary changes
- Observing the fetus’s development and growth
- Keeping busy
- Checking the blood sugar levels
When a person’s blood sugar levels are increased but not high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes, it is referred to as prediabetes or borderline diabetes. An individual must satisfy the following requirements for a doctor to diagnose prediabetes:
- 100–125 mg/dl for fasting blood sugar
- 140–199 mg/dl of glucose is acceptable as a tolerance threshold
- 5.7 to 6.4% on the A1C test
Despite not typically exhibiting the signs of complete diabetes, those with prediabetes have an increased chance of acquiring type 2 diabetes. There are some similarities between the risk factors for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.
The onset of type 1 diabetes cannot be stopped. People can, however, take a few precautions to help prevent type 2 diabetes. Among the methods to fend off type 2 diabetes are:
- Keeping a healthy weight
- Routinely working out
- Consuming a balanced diet free of processed food, added sweets, and saturated fats.
Before getting pregnant, one should keep their weight in a healthy range to lower their risk of having gestational diabetes. Even while these measures can be beneficial, it’s crucial to remember that type 2 or gestational diabetes can still occur in people.
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